If you look at the map of the world, you can understand why the war began in Afghanistan in 1979. This country was between the possessions of the Russian and British empires. As a result of the agreements, this area has become a kind of buffer. And, as history shows, the war begins in such zones sooner or later. February 15 marks 30 years since the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan. There are many misconceptions about this conflict in society. Let’s try to debunk the most important of these myths.
MYTH 1: THE SOVIET INVASION LED TO A CIVIL WAR
At the time of the invasion of the Soviet troops on the territory of Afghanistan, the country was already in full swing civil war. The fact is that the people’s democratic party appeared in monarchical Afghanistan. Its members opposed the autocratic system and adhered to the philosophy of MarxismIn 1978, they made a state coup. After the democratic people’s party came to power, the population of Afghanistan split. So, the new government has banned usury with the noble goal of giving them the opportunity to cultivate their own land. They have not received the seeds, water and fertilizer. They were released and allowed to sail freely, in which they understood absolutely nothing. In addition, the people’s democratic party made another serious mistake when it decided to ignore the local Islamic clergy. All dissatisfied acted as the big oppositional front against the new power. And the civil war began. This happened a few years before the invasion of the Soviet Union.
MYTH 2: THE GOVERNMENT OF AFGHANISTAN ITSELF HAS ASKED THE USSR TO SEND TROOPS
The Russian State Duma has recently tried to change history once again. The deputy-the communist Nikolay Kharitonov has suggested revising the assessment of the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan. In fact, Russia wanted to absolve itself of any moral responsibility for what happened in Afghanistan, for all the lost lives and destruction. In his argument, Nikolay Kharitonov voiced the statement that the Afghan leadership has repeatedly asked the Soviet Union to intervene in the conflict. The truth is that only one person in Afghanistan, then President Hafizullah Amin, asked for Soviet assistance. One person is not the whole country or even part of it. This is just one cowardly man who wanted to hold power in his hands. At the same time, when the Soviet Union still entered Afghanistan, the first who was killed by the Soviets was precisely Hafizullah Amin, who so strongly asked Moscow for help.
MYTH 3: THE U.S. SINGLEHANDEDLY «CREATED» OSAMA BIN LADEN
In fact, this myth has a true foundation. The fact is that the United States really supported the forces that opposed the Soviet Union. Among them were Mujahideen — fans of Islamic ideology. The rebels were supplied with weapons, which then illegally entered the black markets and appeared in the hands of future world terrorists. For example, al-Qaeda militants and Osama bin Laden. In addition, many Mujahideen subsequently moved to different terrorist groups. But the Mujahideen were assisted not only by the States but, for example, by China, which was intense relations with the Soviet Union. But the most active in this situation was Pakistan.
MYTH 4: THE SOVIET UNION COLLAPSED AT THE HANDS OF THE MUJAHIDEEN
The controversial issue is whether the Soviet Union won or lost the war. It would be more truthful to say that both versions are wrong. In the USSR changed power, the country began to lead Mikhail Gorbachev. And each new government has its own view of the old problems. And Gorbachev thought that this war was useless. In addition, a huge number of people have died as a result of the conflict. And sooner or later, it had to end. The number of Afghan casualties ranges from 560,000 to 2 million. And among the same Mujahideen killed about 90 thousand people. Another 6 million civilians have become refugees. And Soviet troops lost from 15 to 26 thousand of their soldiers. As for the Mujahideen, there is no evidence of their key victories in this war. Future terrorists are only got stronger. And worked their main weakness is disunity, where they are losing in different parts of the world to this day.
MYTH 5: THE WAR IN AFGHANISTAN LED TO THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION
The war in Afghanistan may have only strengthened the internal mood in the Soviet Union, which was coming in parallel with external events. For example, veterans of the Afghan war, returning home, were disappointed in the Soviet leadership and called for the independence of their regions. A striking example of this is the personality of Dzhokhar Dudayev-the leader of the movement of the 90s for the independence of Chechnya. But if there was no war in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union would still have collapsed. Just a few years later.